The way a bone grafting technology works depends on many factors including the properties of the graft itself. Whether natural (allograft, simple demineralized bone matrix) or synthetic (hydroxyapatite, calcium phosphate), structure is key to an osteoconductive scaffold providing a suitable workplace for bone forming cells.
Resorption time, porosity, and mechanical strength can vary widely in this class of products. An osteoinductive bone graft (rhBMP, formulated DBM) is defined as a material that can induce the differentiation of mesenchymal cells into osteoblasts. Only a bone graft that is preserved with an osteoinductive factor (e.g., members of the transforming growth factor family) can be considered osteoinductive. Where rhBMPs have been engineered to maintain the growth factors, the processing of DBMs causes significant variability in the amount of osteoinductive factors that remain in the final product.
A bone graft is considered osteogenic if it contains living osteogenic cells that are able to survive in the host environment. Some would suggest that this only occurs when autogenous bone has been implanted immediately or when a bone graft substitute has been enriched with autogenous cells. Unfortunately, the viability of cells in non-vascularized, processed allogeneic bone grafts (cellular bone matrix) is unknown.
i-FACTOR™ Bone Graft is the only biologic bone graft made of a small peptide, P-15 Osteogenic Cell Binding Peptide, bound to an anorganic bone mineral (ABM). This unique combination creates a surface-bound “Attract, Attach, Activate” mechanism of action that enhances the body’s natural bone healing process. Being surface-bound, all cellular activity resulting from P-15 Osteogenic Cell Binding Peptide attachment is restricted to the implant surface so bone cannot grow where it doesn’t belong (ectopic bone growth).