Bone is a rigid composite of mineral (hydroxyapatite) and collagen (primarily Type I). The collagen fibers serve to conduct mechanical forces that are crucial to the behavior of bone cells. The relationship between cells and their surrounding three-dimensional network of force conducting native collagen fibers is essential for normal bone physiology, maintenance and repair. In the body, most cells are attached to native collagen by highly specific points of contact. This point of recognition and contact is a fifteen amino acid sequence, which has been replicated in the synthetic peptide P-15.

Cell migration along the collagen network is an anchorage-dependent process known as haptotaxis. Simply put, cell motility is a grab and release mechanism in which the P-15 domains serve as rungs on a ladder. Incorporation of these P-15 peptides into the microstructure of anorganic bone mineral has been shown to facilitate and expedite ingrowth of bone by promoting the immigration of reparative cells from the surrounding tissue. The following is a subset of the in vivo and in vitro evidence supporting the safety and efficacy of P-15.

Early Bone Formation: Spine

  • Sherman BP, Lindley EM, Turner AS, Seim HB 3rd, Benedict J, Burger EL, Patel VV. Evaluation of ABM/P-15 versus autogenous bone in
    an ovine lumbar interbody fusion model. Eur Spine J. 2010 Dec;19(12):2156-63
  • Axelsen MG, Jespersen SM, Overgaard S, Ding M. Evaluation of cell binding peptide (P15) with silk fibre enhanced hydroxyapatite
    bone substitute for posterolateral spinal fusion in sheep. Eurospine 2015 Annual Meeting, Poster # P30
  • Patel VV, Benedict JJ, Seim HB, Turner AS. Lumbar Spine Fusion in an Ovine Model Comparing P-15/BGS to Autogenous Bone. ORS
    2007 Annual Meeting, Poster # 1452
  • Cheng BC, Moore DK, Zdeblick T. P-15: An Osteoconductive Protein to Enhance Healing of Interbody Cages. ORS 1998 Annual
    Meeting, Poster # 636

Early Bone Formation: Long Bone

  • Ding M, Andreasen CM, Dencker ML, Jensen AE, Theilgaard N, Overgaard S. Efficacy of a small cell-binding peptide coated
    hydroxyapatite substitute on bone formation and implant fixation in sheep. J Biomed Mater Res A. 2015 Apr;103(4):1357-65
  • Pedersen RH, Rasmussen M, Overgaard S, Ding M. Effects of P-15 Peptide Coated Hydroxyapatite on Tibial Defect Repair In Vivo in
    Normal and Osteoporotic Rats. Biomed Res Int. 2015;2015:253858
  • Lindley EM, Guerra FA, Krauser JT, Matos SM, Burger EL, Patel VV. Small peptide (P-15) bone substitute efficacy in a rabbit cancellous
    bone model. J Biomed Mater Res B Appl Biomater. 2010 Aug;94(2):463-8.
  • Guerra FA, Krauser JT, Cabrita AM, et al. Small Peptide (P-15) Bone Substitute Efficacy in a Rabbit Cancellous Bone Model. ORS 2005
    Annual Meeting, Poster # 0212
  • Cakmak G, Bolukbasi S, Simsek A, Erdem O, Yilmaz G, Senkoylu A. Effect of synthetic cell-binding peptide on the healing of cortical
    segmental bone defects. Saudi Medical Journal, Jun 2006;27(6): 777-80